What Is Recycling And How Is It Done?

writer Ekolojist

What is Recycling?

RecycleIt is the re-inclusion of wastes that can be re-evaluated in the production process by going through various processes. In other words, it is the recycling of materials that turn into waste after being used, to the manufacturing processes as raw materials after various physical and chemical processes are applied.

to recycling The need for food started with the resource shortages that emerged due to the wars.

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Purpose of Recycling

Purpose of recycling; to prevent unnecessary use of resources and to reduce the amount of waste. Materials such as glass, paper, aluminum, composite, steel, wood, plastic, battery, electronic waste, motor oil are recycled and reused, which plays an important role in the country's economy.

Recycling also prevents problems such as the storage and transportation of solid waste in countries.

National Geographic Kids – Recycling

What is recycling? How should we classify our garbage? What to do when electronic devices get old? Why is recycling important? You will find answers to these questions and more in this book.

The importance of recycling which materials are recycled, how organic recycling is done, With this book, you will learn about the recycling times of frequently used objects, how energy is produced from garbage, and you will realize our responsibilities in recycling.


Recycling also reduces the amount of foreign currency paid for imported scrap material to meet the resource needs of countries.

Recycling works on a win-win principle. Thanks to recycling, both resources are used more efficiently and less energy, less water is consumed during the production phase, less trees are cut and less carbon emissions are realized.

To explain with an example; with the reintroduction of used paper into the papermaking process air pollution is reduced by 74-94%, water pollution by 35% and water use by 45%.


How to Recycle?

Recycle The process takes place in four stages.

1- Separate collection at the source

Evaluable wastes are collected by separating them from the garbage where they are formed.

Packaging wastes must be collected separately from other wastes where they are generated.

Within the scope of the Packaging Waste Control Regulation, which entered into force after being published in the Official Gazette dated 28.12.2017 and numbered 30283,

Packaging waste producers are obliged to collect their packaging waste separately in accordance with the packaging waste management plan of the municipality they are affiliated with and to deliver them to the municipality's collection system or waste collection centers as determined by the municipalities.

In separate collection practices at source, packaging wastes that consumers collect separately from household waste at their homes or workplaces should be regularly collected by municipalities or contracted Licensed Collection Separation Facilities.

In Separate Collection at Source Applications, equipment such as containers, piggy banks, indoor boxes and recycling bags are used to collect packaging waste separately.

2- Classification

Wastes collected separately at their source are classified according to their types (paper, metal, glass, plastic, composite, etc.) by collection and separation facilities.

3- Evaluation

Wastes that are separated according to their types after being collected separately at the source are returned to the economy as raw materials after physical and chemical processes in recycling facilities.

4- Bringing the new product into the economy

Recycled material is used in the production of a new product and regains life.

Benefits of Recycling

Recycling protects natural resources, saves energy and water. Carbon emissions are reduced. As the amount of waste going to landfills is reduced thanks to recycling, the useful life of landfills is extended.

Recycling helps us invest in the future, provides employment, and contributes to the economy.

Recyclable Materials

  • Chemical waste
  • Cam
  • Paper
  • Aluminum
  • plastic
  • batteries
  • Engine oil
  • Accumulators
  • vehicle tires
  • Rubber
  • concrete
  • organic waste
  • Electronic waste
  • Iron
  • Textile
  • Wooden
  • Metal

Recycling Methods

Recycling methods differ for each material.


The recycling process of aluminum is quite simple. Waste aluminum is broken into small pieces. These parts are then melted in large furnaces and cast aluminum is produced. Thus, aluminum is recycled.

When 10 aluminum beverage cans are recycled, 100 kW/h lamp in 35 hours or the electrical energy consumed by a TV in 30 hours is preserved.


Concrete pieces are collected from the demolition areas and brought to the crushing machines. After crushing, the pieces can be used as pebbles or – if no additives are present – ​​as dry mortar.

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It first breaks down into fibers in water. Sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate is then used to separate it from the ink. Recycled paper fibers are used to manufacture recycled paper, but the paper cannot be recycled continuously. With each recovery, the length of the fibers is shortened and new paper cannot be produced without adding new materials for their adhesion.

With the recycling of 1 ton of paper, it provides the oxygen needs of 34 people. 17 adult trees were prevented from being cut down It happens.


In the first stage, plastic wastes are sorted according to their types (PET, PE, PS, PVC, PP) and recycled. Recyclable plastic wastes, which are separated according to their types, are broken into small pieces in crushing machines. Enterprises can use these parts directly in the production process by mixing them with the original raw material in certain proportions; It can also be used as a second class raw material by melting it again and adding additives.

When used plastics are recycled and put into production; industrial fibers, coats, bags, work hats, grocery trolley handles, school and workplace parts, golf and tennis equipment, garbage collection boxes, garden furniture corner stones, flower pots, benches, auto spare parts, water meter box, buckets, carpet material and It is possible to obtain many new plastic products such as drain pipes.

Products from PET recycling; carpet soles, sleeping bags, insulating material in clothing, auto parts, paint brushes, life-saving pillows, bags, mailboxes, picnic tables, fences, hiking boots, double compartment buckets, laser toner cartridge, straps and geotextiles…

With Plastic Recycling:

  • If a 2,5 liter plastic bottle is recycled and used in production, 6 watts of electrical energy for 60 hours can be saved.
  • A seating group for 1050 people can be made from 6 recycled plastic trays,
  • If 25 2 liter beverage bottles are recycled, you can obtain a plastic sweater from this material.
  • A jacket can be produced from 25 used plastic bottles.
  • A sleeping bag can be made from 35 used PET bottles of 2,5 liters.


Glass wastes are collected separately in piggy banks according to their colors and after reaching the recycling facilities, they are separated from the waste and additives in it. Glass materials are broken and mixed into the raw material mixture and poured into the melting furnaces. Broken glass is also used as concrete additive and glass asphalt. About 30% recycled glass is added to the glass asphalt.

At least one out of every three glass containers we use is made from recycled glass. Waste glass bottles and jars are used in glass packaging production. Other glass types are not included in this process due to the different raw materials they contain.

The energy saved as a result of recycling a glass bottle corresponds to the energy used by a 100-watt light bulb in 1 hour, a computer in 25 minutes, a television in 20 minutes and a washing machine in 10 minutes.

With Glass Recycling:

• 25% reduction in energy consumption is achieved.

• 20% reduction in Air Pollution is achieved.

• 80% reduction in mine waste.

• 50% reduction in water consumption is achieved.

• The use of natural resources such as sand, soda and lime is also reduced.

Why is Recycling Important?

The benefits of recycling are far-reaching, and everyone wins when people embrace recycling as a daily habit. The benefits of a good recycling program are endless, whether it's a community effort to help beautify a dirty neighborhood street or on a larger scale to help a business save hundreds to thousands of dollars in waste management.

Environmental Benefits of Recycling

Recycling has a number of environmental benefits, including:

1. By recycling, people can prevent millions of tons of material from entering landfills and save space for garbage that is not suitable for any other purpose.

Landfills not only pollute the environment, but also hinder the beauty of the city.

2. Recycling reduces the need to extract, refine and process raw materials (mining, quarrying and logging), all of which create significant air and water pollution. Pollutants released into the air and water can be greatly reduced by an increase in recycling.

3. Because recycling saves energy, it also reduces greenhouse gas emissions, which helps fight climate change. In short, recycling reduces greenhouse gas emissions released into the atmosphere.

4. Using recycled materials in the manufacturing process, transportation etc as they are industry ready materials. It uses far less energy than is required to manufacture new products from raw materials, compared to all associated costs including It greatly reduces the amount of energy used daily, without the need to produce new materials.

5. When we recycle, used materials are converted into new products, reducing the need to consume natural resources. If used materials are not recycled, new products are made by extracting fresh, raw materials from the Earth through mining and forestry.

Recycling is the world's raw material, mineral, wood, etc. Helps conserve natural resources. It preserves natural habitats for the future and preserves natural resources for future generations.

6. Recycling keeps landfills to a minimum by keeping the world looking beautiful.

7. In terms of energy, a single light bulb can be powered for up to four hours with the energy saved from a recycled glass bottle.

Economic Benefits of Recycling

Recycling has economic as well as environmental benefits, these include:

1. Recycling contributes to the circular economy where everything is a resource, not a waste. Properly executed recycling programs are less costly to the government, taxpayers and business owners than waste programs.

2. Research shows that by continuing to drive positive recycling habits, the United States could create more than a million jobs a year. For every job created in the waste management industry, recycling creates four jobs.

3. It is cheaper than waste collection and disposal. Therefore, the more you recycle and the less waste you throw in the trash, the more money you save to use for households, businesses and local utilities.

4. When materials are recycled locally, it creates more jobs in the recycling process, boosting your local economy and creating a better future for everyone.

Your recycling efforts also pave the way for a greener future by creating new jobs such as collecting, transporting, processing, manufacturing, packaging and selling recycled products.

5. Recycling can stimulate countries' tourism industry. A clean environment is welcoming and attracts environmental enthusiasts worldwide. This influx of tourists will also contribute to a country's foreign exchange reserve.

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  • Products that have expired, worn out, and damaged will either be thrown away or will have the opportunity to be reused with the recycling companies that collect them.