Hydration and Health

what is hydration
writer Rain Fasting

Water is the most important component required for living things on earth to carry out their vital activities from past to present (Dedekayaoğulları and Önal). The survival of human beings depends on healthy and clean water resources.

Because healthy and clean water resources play an important role in the execution of social and economic activities (Istanbulluoğlu et al.). About 65-70% of the human body is made up of water. occurs.

What is Hydration?

Keeping the body's required water and electrolyte levels to a certain extent hydration is called. In cases where fluid loss in the body cannot be adequately replaced dehydration event occurs. Dehydration does not only cause poor performance, but very serious dehydration can cause health problems, even death.

For a person to be able to maintain hydration It is necessary to consume an average of 2-3 L of water daily. (Demirkan et al.). Studies have shown that both adults and children often fail to maintain appropriate hydration levels.

Adequate water consumption plays an important role in improving cognitive behavior and mood. This, in turn, increases the motivation of school-age children to be successful at school, and to increase the work performance of adults.

Adequate water consumption prevents various diseases such as kidney and cardiovascular diseases, obesity, type-2 diabetes. In addition, dehydration; It also causes various mental disorders such as poor memory, distractibility, and weakening of cognitive behaviors (Blanke et al.).

According to a study, it has been revealed that water consumption decreases in children who go to school. It was stated that children's water consumption decreased by 14% during the hours they were at school. Various studies are carried out to increase water consumption in schools (Edmonds et al.).

The use of personal protective equipment such as masks, which started with the Covid-19 pandemic, causes more water loss. In addition, the measures taken, such as the use of masks, reduce water consumption (Mustafa et al.).

Adequate water consumption; It has been proven by studies that it reduces kidney diseases by 50%, prevents various diseases such as urinary tract infection, obesity, type-2 diabetes, and reduces cardiovascular diseases (Strippoli et al.).

According to a study done If the entire European population consumes 2 L of water per day, it will save 250.000.000 EUR per year in health expenditures. is predicted (Laton et al.).

Hydration in Europe

According to EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), the amount of water in the human body varies according to various factors such as age and gender. For example, while the water rate in the body is around 80% in infants, it drops to 55% in the elderly. On the other hand, male individuals with the same age, weight and height values ​​have a higher body water ratio (EFSA) than female individuals.

Adequate water intake varies according to various conditions such as age, gender, height, weight, and having a disease. The easiest control of whether individuals can get enough water into their bodies is to monitor the color and structure of the urine. The color of the urine of the individual is clear and its structure is dilute, and it has received sufficient amount of water. If the urine is dark in color and has a dense structure, it indicates that it is not getting enough water (Armstrong et al.).

According to European research, fluid consumption varies a lot. While 559 mL of water is consumed per person per day in Hungary, this amount rises to 2500 mL in Sweden. According to EFSA, European people do not consume enough water. Especially in children, water consumption is even less. The rate of individuals consuming less water in France is 90% (Elmadfa et al.).

On the other hand, consumption of sugary drinks is very high in Europe. According to another study conducted in Spain, 4% of children (9-40 years old) and 10% of young adults (17-50) consume at least one serving of sugary beverage per day.

In the data in Table-1, water consumption rates by age are given across Europe (EFSA).

water consumption rates

Table-1 Water Consumption Rates

Source: 

  • Dedekayaoğulları H. Önel AE 2009, The importance of water and water analysis in terms of environment-human health relationship, Journal of Istanbul Medical Faculty.
  • İstanbulluoğlu A. Konukcu F. Kocamna İ. Migrant E. 2007, Determination of drinking and utility water needs of the Thrace region, Tekirdag Faculty of Agriculture Journal.
  • Demirkan E. Koz M. Kutlu M. 2010, The effects of dehydration on performance and monitoring of body hydration levels in athletes, Spormetre Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences.
    Blake MR, Lancsar E, Peeters A, Backholer K. 2018, The effect of sugar-sweetened beverage price increases and educational messages on beverage purchasing behavior among adults. Appetite 2018;126:156–62.
  • Edmonds CJ, Burford D. 2009, Should children drink more water?. The effects of drinking water on cognition in children. Appetite 2009;52(3):776–9.
  • Mustofa ND, Sabdullah PHK, Fajardo ASVS, et al. 2020, Hydration and nutrition concerns among healthcare workers on full personal protective equipment (PPE) in Covid-19 wards. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2020;40:616.
  • Strippoli GFM, Craig JC, Rochtchina E, Flood VM, Wang JJ, Mitchell P. 2011, Fluid and nutrient intake and risk of chronic kidney disease. nephrology 2011;16(3):326–34.
  • Lotan Y, Buendia Jiménez I, Lenoir-Wijnkoop I, et al. 2012, Primary prevention of nephrolithiasis is cost-effective for a national healthcare system. BJU Int [Internet]. 2012 Dec;110(11c):E1060–7.
  • EFSA. 2018, Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values ​​for water. EFSA J. 2010;8(3):2–3.
  • Armstrong L, Maresh C, Castellani J, et al. 1994, Urinary indices of hydration status. Int J Sport Nutr. 1994;4(3):265–79.
  • Elmadfa I, Meyer AL. 2015, Patterns of drinking and eating across the European Union: implications for hydration status. Nutr Rev. 2015;73:141–7

 

About the Author

Rain Fasting

I was born in 1992 in Bursa. I completed my undergraduate education at Dokuz Eylül University and completed my master's degree in the analytical chemistry department of Uludağ University. As a Senior Chemist, I play an active role in both professional business life and EkolojistI am creating content related to my field.

I do yoga and Mindfulness-based meditation practices in order to better understand nature and return to myself.

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