Climate Change and the Paris Agreement

paris climate agreement
writer Merve Guney

What is Global Warming?

Global warming Technically speaking, it is a result of the greenhouse effect. So what is the greenhouse effect? The atmosphere consists of gases such as carbon dioxide, methane gas, ozone, and the rays and reflections coming from the sun towards the earth are also held by these gases in the atmosphere. Thus, the world remained at a certain temperature and natural life emerged. The atmosphere's keeping the heat and temperature at a certain level is called the greenhouse effect and its task is of vital importance for the continuation of life (Akın, 2006).

How Did The Greenhouse Effect Have a Result Like Global Warming?

The beginning of global warming caused by man is based on the industrial revolution. However, with the rapid increase in population and the development of industrialization, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, etc. The increase in the emission of gases caused the excessive greenhouse effect. This causes the ozone layer in the atmosphere to become thinner and the world to warmer. As a result, global warming or climate change occurs (Akın, 2006; Türkeş, 2021).

Drought is at the forefront of the problems caused by global warming, and along with this, harsh and cold winters, floods, storms, forest fires have started to be experienced more intensely and frequently.

Paris Agreement and Governments

According to the report published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2018, 2019 and 2021; The negative consequences of global warming are being experienced all over the world, and the effect of warming will be much more severe in a few decades than we have known so far (IPCC, 2019; Türkeş, 2021).

According to the report, it is stated that human-induced global warming has increased by 18ºC every decade since the industrial revolution in the 0,2th century and the temperature of the world has increased by 1,1ºC until now, and this increase continues. It was emphasized that the temperature increase should be limited to a maximum of 1,5-2ºC..

If the temperature rises above the determined target, the world will be irreversibly warmed and all life will suffer great damage. For example, the expansion of arid areas and desertification, on the other hand, stronger and more severe precipitation, accelerated sea level rise, warming and acidification of the oceans, etc. effects of climate change It creates some predictable results and many more unpredictable disasters are expected (Yıldızoğlu, 2018; IPCC, 2019; Türkeş, 2021).

Read: How Will Global Warming Affect the Earth and Us?

According to the IPCC 2018 report, states should reduce their carbon dioxide emissions by 2030% until 45 and zero their carbon emissions by 2050 against global warming. States to global warming against United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change on climate change mitigation, adaptation and financing. Paris Climate Agreement has been made. As of March 2021, 191 members, including Turkey, signed the agreement (Türkeş, 2021; Sevin, 2021).

Paris Climate Agreement and Turkey

Turkey ranks 16th among the countries that cause the most greenhouse gas emissions in the world.. Under the agreement, Turkey commits that no new coal power plant will be built until 2053 as the first step towards net zero emissions.

Existing coal-fired power plants are aimed to be phased out by replacing them with renewable sources, although 19 countries in Europe have either completely phased out or committed to phase out coal. By 2030, the UK has committed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 68%, the EU by 55% and the USA by 43% (Sevin, 2021).

In the Emissions Gap Report 2019 published by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), the level of emission emissions in the last ten years has been clearly demonstrated. According to the report, temperatures are expected to increase by 3,2 percent this century. This increase will cause mass extinctions and most of the world will become uninhabitable.

To meet the 1,5ºC Paris Agreement target, emissions now need to be lowered and a 2020% reduction per year from 7,6 is required. This will only happen if countries collectively increase their commitments by more than fivefold. However, ten years of data show that the gap is not closed.

G20 countries alone are responsible for 78% of all emissions. (UNEP, 2019). The UNEP 2021 report also states that there has been no change since the 2019 report, and that we are still far from the target and the warming will be at the level of 2,7ºC (UNEP, 2021).

However, in the 2019 report, it was emphasized that the gap could be closed and the emission rate could be reduced by using green technology and renewable resources more accurately.

Apart from this, awareness is the first thing that countries can do. Because, unfortunately, people are not aware of how serious the situation is in our country. For this, we need to start raising people's awareness as soon as possible and, if necessary, adopt laws that will reduce our carbon footprint.


  • Galip, Akin (2006). Global warming, its causes and consequences. Ankara University Journal of the Faculty of Language, History and Geography46

  • IPCC. 2018. Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty [Masson-Delmotte, V., et al., (eds.)]. InPress.

  • Yıldızoglu, Ergin (2018). Climate change: 20 most critical years. Accessed February 10, 2022. 

  • UNEP (2019). The Emissions Gap Report 2019: A UNEP Synthesis Report. United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), Nairobi (2019).

  • UNEP (2021). The Emissions Gap Report 2021: A UNEP Synthesis Report. United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), Nairobi (2021).

  • TURKES, Murat (2021). What is the UNFCCC Paris Agreement and what are the main issues expected to be discussed in Glasgow?

  • You Loved (2021). Paris Agreement Approved: A New Era Begins in Turkey's Climate Policy. Accessed February 10, 2022.


About the Author

Merve Guney

I am a graduate of Süleyman Demirel University, department of agricultural biotechnology and as of 2021, I am an agricultural engineer from the same field.

I am a nature lover with a true love of green. At the same time, I am a science enthusiast who is always surprised by the miracles of nature and biology.

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