What is Food Security?

what is food security

What is Food Safety?

Food safety defines reliable food supply conditions and requirements. The TR Ministry of Health defines safe food as “a food that is suitable for human consumption in terms of physical, chemical and microbiological properties when it is prepared as intended, does not pose a health hazard and does not lose its nutritional value” (Koç, 2013: 177).

What is Food Security?

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) was founded on 16 October each year. World Food Day is celebrated. The concept adopted at the 1996 World Food Summit to describe food security is widely used. According to this, food security is defined as “all people's physical and economic access to sufficient, healthy, safe and nutritious food in order to meet their nutritional needs and food needs necessary for an active and healthy life at all times” (Koç, 2013: 178).

With today's data, it is predicted that the world population, which is about 8 billion, will be 2050 billion in 11. In developing countries such as China, India and Indonesia, the population is increasing rapidly, as a result, individuals who do not have the potential to work increase the average food consumption in the family, while lowering their income and thus increasing the poverty rate.

world population

It is estimated that 925 million of the world's population is suffering from hunger today.

What are Food Security Principles?

In the concept of food security, Ryerson University, Center for Studies in Food Security (CSFS), operating in Canada, underlined five principles; In food security;

  1. Availability: Adequate food availability for everyone, whether at the household level, at the regional, national or global level, is the first condition, and it includes the production of enough food, the transportation of the produced food without spoiling and rotting, the correct storage, packaging and storage of the surplus.
  2. Accessibility: The availability of sufficient food does not mean that it reaches those who need it, and therefore “accessibility” is the second requirement of food security. While adequate production is required for the first condition, effective distribution and marketing is required for the second condition, and the state and social assistance institutions are required to have the basic means of production in the absence of them.
  3. be acceptable: The third requirement is that these foods are healthy, clean, reliable and provided in a manner worthy of human dignity, that is, "acceptable".
  4. Qualifications: “Adequacy” is the fourth requirement for the efficiency of production and distribution.
  5. Sustainability: For this, the fifth condition is that today's production activities should be in a way that will enable future generations to reach the food they will need, that is, they should be "sustainable".

What Are Food Security Issues?

COVID-19 outbreak, triggered world hunger, which remained almost stagnant for five years, from 8,4 percent to 10,4 percent of the global population in just one year. At the same time, the percentage of food lost on the farm after harvest and during transportation, storage and processing is 13,8 percent worldwide, over $400 billion per year.

While the prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity has slowly increased globally since 2014, The increase in 2020 was equal to the sum of the previous five years.

The most important question for future generations establishing a sustainable food system it is. It is necessary for the continuation of life on earth. While providing nutrition for future generations, a food system security should be established in which food security is ensured for all, without compromising economic, social and environmental fundamentals.

The way to ensure continuous food security is to provide physically and economically accessible food and water in direct proportion to the current population. It is necessary to provide food production at a rate sufficient for the constantly increasing population. WRI (World Resource Institute) prepared the problems that need to be solved in order to create sustainable food by 2050. Table1 viewed through The gap between the amount of food produced today and the amount needed to feed everyone in 2050 is projected to be 56 percent.

sustainable food

While applying solutions to close this difference, The destruction of forest areas should be prevented in order to be able to do more agriculture.. 2050% less in 67 greenhouse gas release is anticipated. For this, the use of innovative technologies (such as improved seeds, plant-based burgers, resistant crop types) is envisaged.

From a macro point of view, food security is different strategies and goals that extend to the supply of nutrients needed by humanity in the country and global context. Today, food security has turned into a political phenomenon that requires the intervention and coordination of states and international institutions.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) recommends the implementation of government policies that will enable the promotion of agricultural production, trade liberalization and the private sector to play a more active role in the agricultural sector for food security. FAO investments in agriculture, sustainable and states that it is vitally important for ensuring global food security.


About the Author

Didem Samurkas

I am a Computer Engineer, I am married, I first completed my master's degree in Sociology in order to find answers to my questions why we live social life like this, how our relations with each other are formed, and now I am continuing my Sociology doctoral program. I am doing my thesis on food and agriculture.

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